AskDefine | Define lead

Dictionary Definition



1 a soft heavy toxic malleable metallic element; bluish white when freshly cut but tarnishes readily to dull gray; "the children were playing with lead soldiers" [syn: Pb, atomic number 82]
2 an advantage held by a competitor in a race; "he took the lead at the last turn"
3 evidence pointing to a possible solution; "the police are following a promising lead"; "the trail led straight to the perpetrator" [syn: track, trail]
4 a position of leadership (especially in the phrase `take the lead'); "he takes the lead in any group"; "we were just waiting for someone to take the lead"; "they didn't follow our lead"
5 the angle between the direction a gun is aimed and the position of a moving target (correcting for the flight time of the missile)
6 the introductory section of a story; "it was an amusing lead-in to a very serious matter" [syn: lead-in]
7 an actor who plays a principal role [syn: star, principal]
8 (baseball) the position taken by a base runner preparing to advance to the next base; "he took a long lead off first"
9 an indication of potential opportunity; "he got a tip on the stock market"; "a good lead for a job" [syn: tip, steer, confidential information, wind, hint]
10 a news story of major importance [syn: lead story]
11 the timing of ignition relative to the position of the piston in an internal-combustion engine [syn: spark advance]
12 restraint consisting of a rope (or light chain) used to restrain an animal [syn: leash, tether]
13 thin strip of metal used to separate lines of type in printing [syn: leading]
14 mixture of graphite with clay in different degrees of hardness; the marking substance in a pencil [syn: pencil lead]
15 a jumper that consists of a short piece of wire; "it was a tangle of jumper cables and clip leads" [syn: jumper cable, jumper lead]
16 the playing of a card to start a trick in bridge; "the lead was in the dummy"


1 take somebody somewhere; "We lead him to our chief"; "can you take me to the main entrance?"; "He conducted us to the palace" [syn: take, direct, conduct, guide]
2 result in; "The water left a mark on the silk dress"; "Her blood left a stain on the napkin" [syn: leave, result]
3 tend to or result in; "This remark lead to further arguments among the guests"
4 travel in front of; go in advance of others; "The procession was headed by John" [syn: head]
5 cause to undertake a certain action; "Her greed led her to forge the checks"
6 stretch out over a distance, space, time, or scope; run or extend between two points or beyond a certain point; "Service runs all the way to Cranbury"; "His knowledge doesn't go very far"; "My memory extends back to my fourth year of life"; "The facts extend beyond a consideration of her personal assets" [syn: run, go, pass, extend]
7 be in charge of; "Who is heading this project?" [syn: head]
8 be ahead of others; be the first; "she topped her class every year" [syn: top]
9 be conducive to; "The use of computers in the classroom lead to better writing" [syn: contribute, conduce]
10 lead, as in the performance of a composition; "conduct an orchestra; Bairenboim conducted the Chicago symphony for years" [syn: conduct, direct]
11 pass or spend; "lead a good life"
12 lead, extend, or afford access; "This door goes to the basement"; "The road runs South" [syn: go]
13 move ahead (of others) in time or space [syn: precede] [ant: follow]
14 cause something to pass or lead somewhere; "Run the wire behind the cabinet" [syn: run]
15 preside over; "John moderated the discussion" [syn: moderate, chair] [also: led]

User Contributed Dictionary


Etymology 1

lead, from West , from a . Cognate with Dutch lood, German Lot Swedish lod and Danish lod.


  • , /lɛd/, /lEd/


  1. uncountable element A heavy, pliable, inelastic metal element, having a bright, bluish color, but easily tarnished; both malleable and ductile, though with little tenacity. It is easily fusible, forms alloys with other metals, and is an ingredient of solder and type metal. Atomic number 82, Atomic weight 206.4, Specific Gravity 11.37, Symbol Pb (from Latin plumbum).
  2. A plummet or mass of lead, used in sounding at sea.
  3. A thin strip of type metal, used to separate lines of type in printing.
  4. Sheets or plates of lead used as a covering for roofs.
  5. In the context of "plural leads": A roof covered with lead sheets or terne plates.
    • I would have the tower two stories, and goodly leads upon the top. — Bacon
  6. A cylinder of black lead or plumbago used in pencils.
  7. bullet
    They filled him full of lead.
Derived terms
chemical element
  • Afrikaans: lood
  • Albanian: plumb
  • Arabic: رصاص
  • Armenian: կապար
  • Basque: beruna
  • Belarusian: цвінец
  • Bosnian: olovo
  • Breton: plom, plomoù
  • Bulgarian: олово
  • Catalan: plom
  • Chinese: 鉛, 铅
  • Cornish: plom
  • Croatian: olovo
  • Czech: olovo
  • Danish: bly
  • Dutch: lood
  • Esperanto: plumbo
  • Estonian: plii
  • Faroese: blýggj
  • Finnish: lyijy
  • French: plomb
  • Friulian:
  • Galician: chumbo
  • Georgian: ტყვია
  • German: Blei
  • Greek, Modern: μόλυβδος
  • Hebrew: עופרת
  • Hungarian: ólom
  • Icelandic: blý
  • Indonesian: timbal
  • Irish: luaidhe
  • Italian: piombo
  • Japanese: 鉛
  • Kazakh: къогъасын
  • Korean: 납, 연 (鉛)
  • Kurdish: قورقوشم
  • Latin: plumbum
  • Latvian: svins
  • Lithuanian: švinas
  • Luxembourgish: bläi
  • Macedonian: олово
  • Malay: plumbum
  • Malayalam: കറുത്തീയം
  • Maltese: ċomb
  • Manx: leoaie
  • Maori: matā
  • Mongolian: хар
  • Norwegian: bly
  • Persian: سرب
  • Polish: ołów
  • Portuguese: chumbo
  • Romanian: plumb
  • Russian: свинец, плюмбум
  • Sardinian (Campidanese):
  • Scottish Gaelic: luaidh
  • Serbian: олово, olovo
  • Slovak: olovo
  • Slovene: svinec
  • Spanish: plomo
  • Swedish: bly
  • Tajik: surb
  • Tamil: ஈயம்
  • Telugu: సీసం
  • Thai: ตะกั้ว
  • Turkish: kurşun
  • Ukrainian: свинець
  • Uzbek: кўогъшсин
  • Vietnamese: chì
  • Welsh: plwm
  • West Frisian: lead
  • Yiddish: בליי
plummet to measure depth of water
  • Dutch: dieplood
  • Esperanto: sondilo
  • Finnish: luoti
  • German: Senkblei
  • Italian: scandaglio
  • Russian: грузило, свинцовый отвес
  • Spanish: sonda, escandallo
separator line in print
  • Russian: шпон, шпона, шпоны
  • Spanish: regleta, interlínea
sheets or plates covering a roof
roof covered with lead sheets or terne plates
refill for writing tool
  • Dutch: stift
  • Finnish: lyijy
  • German: Mine
  • Italian: mina
  • Malayalam: പെന്‍സില്‍ മുന
  • Russian: графит
  • Spanish: mina


  1. To cover, fill, or affect with lead; as, continuous firing leads the grooves of a rifle.
  2. In the context of "transitive|printing": To place leads between the lines of; as, to lead a page; leaded matter.
Usage notes
Note carefully these two senses are verbs derived from the noun referring to the metallic element, and are unrelated to the heteronym defined below under #Etymology 2.
to cover, fill, or affect with lead
printing: place leads between the lines of


  • , /liːd/, /li:d/


  1. To guide or conduct with the hand, or by means of some physical contact connection; as, a father leads a child; a jockey leads a horse with a halter; a dog leads a blind man.
    • If a blind man lead a blind man, both fall down in the ditch. — John Wyclif on Matthew 15:14
    • They thrust him out of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill. — Luke 4:29
    • In thy right hand lead with thee The mountain nymph, sweet Liberty. — Milton
  2. To guide or conduct in a certain course, or to a certain place or end, by making the way known; to show the way, especially by going with or going in advance of, to lead a pupil; to guide somebody somewhere or to bring somebody somewhere by means of instructions. Hence, figuratively: To direct; to counsel; to instruct; as, to lead a traveler.
    • The Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way. — Exodus 13:21
    • He leadeth me beside the still waters. — Psalms 23:2
    • This thought might lead me through the world’s vain mask. Content, though blind, had I no better guide. — Milton.
  3. To conduct or direct with authority; to have direction or charge of; as, to lead an army, an exploring party, or a search; to lead a political party; to command, especially a military or business unit
    • Christ took not upon him flesh and blood that he might conquer and rule nations, lead armies, or possess places. — Robert South
  4. To go or to be in advance of; to precede; hence, to be foremost or chief among; as, the big sloop led the fleet of yachts; the Guards led the attack; Demosthenes leads the orators of all ages.
  5. To draw or direct by influence, whether good or bad; to prevail on; to induce; to entice; to allure; as, to lead one to espouse a righteous cause.
    • The evidence leads me to believe he is guilty.
    • He was driven by the necessities of the times, more than led by his own disposition, to any rigor of actions. — Eikon Basilike
    • Silly women, laden with sins, led away by divers lusts. — 2 Timothy 3:6.
  6. To guide or conduct oneself in, through, or along (a certain course); hence, to proceed in the way of; to follow the path or course of; to pass; to spend. Also, to cause (one) to proceed or follow in (a certain course).
    • That we may lead a quiet and peaceable life. — 1 Timothy 2:2
    • Nor thou with shadowed hint confuse A life that leads melodious days. — Alfred Tennyson
    • You remember . . . the life he used to lead his wife and daughter. — Dickens
  7. In the context of "transitive|cards|dominoes": To begin a game, round, or trick, with; as, to lead trumps
    He led with a double five.
  8. To guide or conduct, as by accompanying, going before, showing, influencing, directing with authority, etc.; to have precedence or preeminence; to be first or chief; — used in most of the senses of the transitive verb.
  9. To be ahead of others, e.g., in a race
  10. To have the highest interim score in a game
  11. To be more advanced in technology or business than others
  12. To tend or reach in a certain direction, or to a certain place; as, the path leads to the mill; gambling leads to other vices.
  13. To lead off or out, to go first; to begin.
  14. To produce.
    The shock led to a change in his behaviour.
  15. To step off base and move towards the next base.
    The batter always leads off base.
guide or conduct with the hand, or by means of some physical contact connection
  • Breton: ren, kas, bleinañ
  • Czech: vést
  • Dutch: leiden
  • Esperanto: konduki
  • Finnish: johdattaa, opastaa, ohjata
  • German: führen, leiten
  • Hebrew: הוביל
  • Italian: condurre
  • Japanese: 導く
  • Malayalam: നയിയ്ക്കുക
  • Polish: prowadzić, poprowadzić, zaprowadzić, doprowadzać, przeprowadzać
  • Portuguese: guiar, conduzir
  • Russian: водить, вести
  • Slovene: voditi
  • Swedish: leda, föra
  • West Frisian: liede
guide or conduct in a certain course
  • Dutch: leiden
  • Esperanto: konduki
  • Finnish: johdattaa, opastaa, johtaa
  • French: mener
  • Hebrew: הוביל
  • Italian: condurre
  • Japanese: 案内する, 率いる, 導く
  • Polish: kierować, prowadzić, poprowadzić, zaprowadzić, doprowadzać, przeprowadzać, wskazywać, pokazywać
  • Russian: водить, вести
  • Slovene: voditi
  • Swedish: leda
  • West Frisian: liede
conduct or direct with authority
  • Dutch: leiden
  • Esperanto: estri
  • Finnish: johtaa, vetää
  • Hebrew: הוביל, הנהיג
  • Italian: condurre
  • Japanese: 率いる
  • Malayalam: നയിയ്ക്കുക
  • Polish: kierować, prowadzić, dowodzić, przewodzić, poprowadzić
  • Russian: руководить
  • Slovene: voditi
  • Swedish: leda
  • West Frisian: liede
go or be in advance of; precede
  • Dutch: leiden
  • Esperanto: antaŭiri i go, antaŭi i be
  • Finnish: johtaa
  • French: mener
  • Hebrew: הוביל, הנהיג
  • Polish: prowadzić, przewodzić, poprzedzać
  • Russian: возглавлять
  • Slovene: voditi
  • Swedish: leda
draw or direct by influence
  • Dutch: leiden
  • Esperanto: logi
  • Finnish: johdattaa, ajaa
  • Hebrew: הוביל, הנהיג
  • Italian: convincere, influenzare
  • Japanese: 引く
  • Polish: prowadzić
  • Russian: склонять, приводить, привести
  • Slovene: voditi
  • Swedish: leda
guide or conduct oneself
begin a game of cards or dominoes
  • Esperanto: komenci
  • Finnish: aloittaa
  • Hebrew:
  • Italian: essere di mano
  • Polish: wychodzić
  • Russian: ходить с (χodít’ s +genitive pl), пойти с (pojtí s +genitive pl)
intransitive: to guide or conduct
intransitive: be ahead of others
  • Dutch: aanvoeren, vooroplopen
  • Esperanto: antaŭi
  • Finnish: johtaa
  • Hebrew:
  • Italian: andare avanti
  • Polish: prowadzić, przewodzić, poprzedzać
  • Russian: лидировать (lidírovat’)
  • Slovene: voditi
  • Swedish: leda
intransitive: have the highest interim score in a game
intransitive: be more advanced
intransitive: tend or reach in a certain direction
intransitive: to go first
  • Esperanto: komenciĝi
  • Hebrew:
  • Italian: andare avanti
  • Polish: prowadzić
  • Russian: начинать (načinát’)


  1. The act of leading or conducting; guidance; direction; as, to take the lead; to be under the lead of another.
    • At the time I speak of, and having a momentary lead, . . . I am sure I did my country important service. — Edmund Burke
  2. Precedence; advance position; also, the measure of precedence; as, the white horse had the lead; a lead of a boat’s length, or of half a second; the state of being ahead in a race; the highest score in a game in an incomplete game.
  3. When a runner steps away from a base while waiting for the pitch to be thrown
    The runner took his lead from first.
  4. (cards and dominoes) The act or right of playing first in a game or round; the card suit, or piece, so played; as, your partner has the lead.
  5. A channel of open water in an ice field.
  6. In the context of "countable|mining}} A lode.
  7. A potential customer.



A compound of the coverb

Extensive Definition

Lead () is a transitional element with a symbol Pb (lang-la plumbum). Lead has the atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal, also considered to be one of the heavy metals. Lead has a bluish white color when freshly cut, but tarnishes to a dull grayish color when it is exposed to air and is a shiny chrome silver when melted into a liquid. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shot, weights, and is part of solder, pewter, and fusible alloys. Lead has the highest atomic number of all stable elements, although the next element, bismuth, has a half-life so long (longer than the estimated age of the universe) it can be considered stable. Like mercury, another heavy metal, lead is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bone over time.

Notable characteristics

Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, ductile, very soft, highly malleable, bluish-white metal that has poor electrical conductivity. This true metal is highly resistant to corrosion, and because of this property, it is used to contain corrosive liquids (e.g. sulfuric acid). Because lead is very malleable and resistant to corrosion it is extensively used in building construction e.g. external coverings of roofing joints. Lead can be toughened by adding a small amount of antimony or other metals to it. It is a common misconception that lead has a zero Thomson effect. All lead, except 204Pb, is the end product of a complex radioactive decay (see isotopes of lead below). Lead is also poisonous.


Lead has been commonly used for thousands of years because it is widespread, easy to extract and easy to work with. It is highly malleable and ductile as well as easy to smelt. In the early Bronze Age, lead was used with antimony and arsenic. Lead was mentioned in the Book of Exodus (15:10). The principal ores of lead are galena (PbS), anglesite () and cerussite (PbCO3). Most ores contain less than 10% lead, and ores containing as little as 3% lead can be economically exploited. Ores are crushed and concentrated by froth flotation typically to 70% or more. Sulfide ores are roasted, producing primarily lead oxide and a mixture of sulfates and silicates of lead and other metals contained in the ore.
Lead oxide from the roasting process is reduced in a coke-fired blast furnace. This converts most of the lead to its metallic form. Three additional layers separate in the process and float to the top of the metallic lead. These are slag (silicates containing 1.5% lead), matte (sulfides containing 15% lead), and speiss (arsenides of iron and copper). These wastes contain concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium, and bismuth that can be recovered economically, as can their content of unreduced lead.
Most lead ores contain significant concentrations of silver, resulting in the smelted metal also containing silver as a contaminant. Metallic silver as well as gold is removed and recovered economically by means of the Parkes process.
  • Annual Metal Production (2006): 7918 Thousand tonnes
  • Annual Mine Production (2006): 3442 Thousand tonnes (lead content)
At current use rates, the supply of lead is estimated to run out in 42 years. Environmental analyst, Lester Brown, however, has suggested lead could run out within 18 years based on an extrapolation of 2% growth per year. This may need to be reviewed to take account of renewed interest in recycling, and rapid progress in fuel cell technology.


Lead has seven isotopes in total (3 stable, 3 unstable 1 radiogenic). The 3 stable isotopes are 206Pb, 207Pb, & 208Pb, and the 3 unstable isotopes are 204Pb, 205Pb, & 210Pb, along with one common radiogenic isotope 202Pb with a half-life of ~53,000 years.

Health effects

Lead is a poisonous metal that can damage nervous connections (especially in young children) and cause blood and brain disorders. Long term exposure to lead or its salts (especially soluble salts or the strong oxidant PbO2) can cause nephropathy, and colic-like abdominal pains. The concern about lead's role in cognitive deficits in children has brought about widespread reduction in its use (lead exposure has been linked to schizophrenia). Most cases of adult elevated blood lead levels are workplace-related. High blood levels are associated with delayed puberty in girls.
Older houses may still contain substantial amounts of lead paint. White lead paint has been withdrawn from sale in industrialized countries, but the yellow lead chromate is still in use; for example, Holland Colours Holcolan Yellow. Old paint should not be stripped by sanding, as this produces inhalable dust.
Lead salts used in pottery glazes have on occasion caused poisoning, when acid drinks, such as fruit juices, have leached lead ions out of the glaze. It has been suggested that what was known as "Devon colic" arose from the use of lead-lined presses to extract apple juice in the manufacture of cider. Lead is considered to be particularly harmful for women's ability to reproduce. For that reason, many universities do not hand out lead-containing samples to women for instructional laboratory analyses. Lead acetate (also known as sugar of lead) was used by the Roman Empire as a sweetener for wine, and some consider this to be the cause of the dementia that affected many of the Roman Emperors.
Lead as a soil contaminant is a widespread issue, since lead is present in natural deposits and may also enter soil through (leaded) gasoline leaks from underground storage tanks or through a wastestream of lead paint or lead grindings from certain industrial operations.

Biochemistry of lead poisoning

In medicine, lead inhibits α-aminolevulinate (ALA) dehydratase and ferrochelatase, preventing both porphobilinogen formation and the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin IX, the final step in heme synthesis. This causes ineffective heme synthesis and subsequent microcytic anemia.

Leaching of lead from metal surfaces

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

T square, accent, accent mark, accomplishment, actor, administer, administrate, advance, advantage, affect, aim, aluminum, americium, antagonist, antecede, antecedence, antecedency, anteposition, anteriority, antetype, antihero, antitype, approach, archetype, arrow, ascendancy, attend, aureate, authority, ballast, bamboozle, bar, barium, be in front, be master, be responsible for, be the bellwether, be the front-runner, beacon, bear, begin, beguile, bell cow, bellwether, bend, bend to, beryllium, bias, bidet, biotype, bismuth, bit, bit part, blaze, blaze the trail, bob, brass, brassy, brazen, break ground, break the ice, break the trail, bring, bring about, bring on, bring up, broach, bronze, bronzy, cable, cadmium, calcium, call forth, call the signals, cancel, captain, carriage horse, carry, carry on, cart horse, cast, catchword, cause, cavalry horse, cerium, cesium, chain, chair, chaperon, character, chief, chrome, chromium, classic example, clue, cobalt, color, come before, come first, command, commence, compass needle, conduce, conduct, contribute, contribute to, contrive, control, convince, convoy, copper, coppery, cord, create, criterion, cue, cue word, cupreous, cuprous, custos, danseur noble, dean, deanship, deceive, decide, decoy, descend, determine, direct, direction, direction post, discipline, dispose, distance, diva, dominion, dot, doyen, draft horse, draw down, draw on, dray horse, driving horse, drop, dysprosium, edge, effect, electronics king, elicit, engage, engender, engineer, enlist, entice, epitome, erbium, escort, esquire, europium, evidence, evoke, example, exceed, excel, excellence, exemplar, experience, expression mark, fat part, favor, feature attraction, feeder, fermata, ferrous, ferruginous, fill horse, filler, finger post, first, first tragedian, fist, flex, fool, foregoing, foremost, forerun, forge ahead, front, front position, fugleman, fugler, gadolinium, gallium, genotype, germanium, get, get ahead of, get before, get going, get moving, get to do, get under way, gigster, gilt, go, go ahead of, go before, go in advance, gold, gold-filled, gold-plated, golden, govern, governance, government, gravitate, greatness, guard, guidance, guide, guideboard, guidepost, hack, hackney, hand, handle, handling, have a tendency, have priority, have the start, head, head the line, head the table, head up, heading, headliner, heavy, heavy lead, herald, hero, heroine, hint, hold, hold a heading, holmium, honcho, hoodwink, hot lead, hour hand, hunter, husbandry, imitatee, inaugurate, incline, incomparability, index, index finger, indium, induce, influence, ingenue, inimitability, initiate, inspire, instigate, interest in, intimation, introduce, inveigle, invent, iridium, iron, ironlike, jeune premier, jument, key, key signature, key word, kick off, king, lanthanum, lap, le pas, lead astray, lead off, lead on, lead role, lead the dance, lead the way, leaden, leader, leadership, leading, leading lady, leading light, leading man, leading woman, lean, leash, ligature, light the way, lines, lithium, live, look to, lubber line, luminary, lure, lutetium, magnesia, magnesium, main, majority, make the rules, manage, management, managery, managing, maneuver, manganese, manipulate, manipulation, margin, mark, marshal, master spirit, mastermind, measure, mercurial, mercurous, mercury, metronomic mark, milepost, minute hand, mirror, misdirect, misguide, mislead, model, molybdenum, motivate, mount, move, needle, neodymium, nickel, nickelic, nickeline, niobium, notation, obtain, officer, one-upmanship, order, ordering, original, originate, osmium, outdo, outrank, outrun, outstrip, pace, pack horse, palfrey, palladium, paradigm, paramount, part, pass, pattern, pause, person, personage, persuade, pewter, pewtery, phosphorus, piece, pilot, pilotage, pioneer, platinum, play first fiddle, plow horse, plumb, plumb bob, plumb line, plumb rule, plummet, plunge, point, point to, pointer, pole horse, polo pony, polonium, possibility, post-horse, potassium, potential, praseodymium, precede, precedence, precedency, precedent, preceding, precession, precipitate, precursor, predispose, predominance, predomination, preeminence, preface, preference, prefixation, prelude, premier, preponderance, prepotence, prepotency, prerogative, presa, prescribe, present, preside over, prestige, prevail, prima ballerina, prima donna, primacy, principal, priority, privilege, procure, produce, promethium, prompt, prospect, protactinium, protagonist, prothesis, prototype, provoke, pull the strings, quarterback, quicksilver, radium, rank, rank first, rank out, rate, recedence, redound to, regulate, regulation, remount, representative, restraint, rhenium, rider, riding horse, right-of-way, road horse, roadster, role, rouncy, route, rubidium, rule, run, running, ruthenium, saddle horse, saddler, samarium, sandbag, scandium, scent, seduce, see, segno, seniority, serve, set, set square, set the pace, set toward, settle, shaft horse, shepherd, show, show a tendency, show the way, side, sign, signature, signboard, signpost, silver, silver-plated, silvery, singer, sink, sinker, skill, skipper, slur, sodium, soften up, soubrette, spearhead, spend, spoor, square, squire, stalking-horse, stand first, stand in front, stand over, standard, star, steel, steely, steer, steerage, steering, straight part, strontium, subside, success, suggestion, sumpter, sumpter horse, superinduce, superintend, superiority, superstar, supervise, supporting character, supporting role, supremacy, surpass, sway, swell, symbol, take command, take out, take precedence, take the initiative, take the lead, take the plunge, tantalum, technetium, telltale, tempo mark, tempt, tend, tend to go, terbium, tether, thallium, the conn, the helm, the lead, the wheel, thill horse, thiller, thulium, tie, time signature, tin, tinge, tinny, tip, tip-off, titanium, title role, tone, top dog, top priority, trace, transcendence, transcendency, trend, try square, tungsten, turn, type, type species, type specimen, uranium, urgency, urtext, usher, usher in, van, vanadium, vanguard, verge, vestige, villain, vinculum, virtuosity, wait on, walk-on, walking part, warp, wear down, weigh down, weigh with, weight, weight down, wheeler, wheelhorse, whiff, while away, wield authority, wield the baton, wire, wolfram, work, work toward, workhorse, ytterbium, yttrium, zinc, zirconium
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